All About Sandhyavandanam

All About Sandhyavandanam

All About Sandhyavandanam www.StotraVeda.com
All About Sandhyavandanam

What is Sandhyavandanam:

The Sandhyavandanam consists of recitation from the Vedas, accompanied by ritual. These rituals are performed three times a day at morning (pratahsandhya), noon (madghyanika) and evening (Sayam Sandhya).

Our scriptures attach lot of importance to Sandhya vandanam .They prescribe that a dwija should do it without fail every day, They also say that the knowledgeable Brahmin who salutes the Sun god daily thrice would attain whatever he wants. They further say that one who does not do sandhyavandanam is a sinner and is not eligible for any Vedic duties.

What is given below is the Sandhya Vandanam procedure prescribed for Yajur Vedis. But the manthras to be chanted by followers of the other Vedas is also mentioned wherever there is a difference. All people are requested to do the Sandhya vandanam initially for a few times under the guidance of their “Guru” and use the procedure and manthras given below later. This is requested because English being not a very phonetic language is inadequate to transliterate Sanskrit slokas and that too those written in the Vedic Sanskrit.

Sandhyavandanam timings:

‘Ajyotisho darsanat sandhi, jyotisho bhanutare’
The above statement of the shastra means ‘Sandhi is the time when the sun and the stars are together visible’ The practical thing therefore will be to start
In the morning before sunrise, give Arghyam( explanation later) during sunrise and finish just after sunrise.
In the evening, begin before sunset, give Arghyam during sunset and finish later.
For those who always are inconsistent with their timings, Shastra says

‘Uttama tarakopeta madhyama lupta taraka
Adhama urya sahita prata: sandhya tridha mana’

To do PrAtha ( morning) sandhyA vandanam when the stars are visible is Uttama (first grade.); Maddhyama (middle grade) when doing without the stars; and Adhama ( least grade when Sun is visible)
“Uttama suryasahita maddhyama anudita taraka
Adhma tarakopeta sayam sandhya tridha mata”
 
To do Sayam( evening) Sandhya Vandanam , It is Uttama doing while the sun is still shining; Maddhyama when doing before stars are visible; Adhama after the stars are fuly visible.
The morning and evening sandhis are also ideal since, traditionally and habitually, a person’s stomach will be empty doing both sunrise and sunset. An empty stomach is achieved after four hours of a solid meal. An empty stomach is a prerequisite for Sandhyavandanam since there are at least three sets of pranayama totaling 15 in one full routine. A loaded stomach will interfere with pranayama greatly resulting in indigestion, sleepiness etc. Even the madhyahnikam ( noon) routine is done with an empty stomach before the meal.
After bath, one should wear dry clothes, apply religious marks (pundras) on forehead etc., wash feet, have upavita (sacred thread), do Achamanam twice as per rules and perform Sandhyopasanam facing east (or north). There is a Tamil adage meaning “Offer (Argya) without seeing (the Sun in the morning), without angularity (at noon when Sun is straight up) and with seeing (before Sunset in evening)”. Sandhyopasanam must be done before Sunrise in the morning. In case of inconvenience, it should be done at least within 3 ¾ nazhigas (1½ hours) after Sunrise after performing Pranayama as atonement.
Maadhyahnikam must be done after 11¼ nazhigas (10.30 a.m.). If it is not convenient to do it before Sun travels westward, it should be done at least before evening.
In the evening Sandhya, Argya should be given when the Sun’s zone is half set and upasthanam should be done as soon as stars rise. It should be done at least before close of Pradosha kala (i.e. 3¾ nazhigas, i.e. 1½ hours after Sunset).
 
There are three types of KarmasNithya, Naimithika, and Kamya karmas.
Kamya karma is one which is done with a desire to achieve, like a yagya for long life etc .Even if
kamya karmas are not done , there is no papam. Naimithika karma is one which is not shastra bound and not niyamic, i.e., a necessary duty , such as taking bath after an eclipse.
Nithya karma is one which is ‘niyata nimitta’ meaning ‘ that which is done which is shastra bound’ . Sunrise and sunset are the reason for doing Sandhya vandanam. Hence this is classified in the Nithya karma, which has to be done daily,lifelong.

Things You Need Vessel: 

Studies in naturopathy have shown that water kept in copper, silver or gold vessels help to improve bio-electricity in our body. Hence it would be preferable to use copper or silver vessel for Sandyavandanam.

Which type of Clothes:  

Studies  in  naturopathy  have  shown  that  wool  and  silk  are  not  good  conductors  of  bio-electricity  while  cotton  is.  Hence  it  is  desirable  to  wear  cotton  clothes  while  performing Sandyavandanam (as we acquire bio-energy from surroundings).

Which Place we have to choose:  

Sandyavandanam  should  be  performed  in  the  outdoors  as  far  as  possible.  It  was  the practice to perform the Poorvaangam part outdoors – at a lake or river where the Brahmana would take  bath,  and  where  water  was  available  in  plenty  –  while  the  Uttaraangam  could  also  be  done indoors.

Sandhyavandanam Directions:  

Pratah Sandyavandanam is performed facing East. Madyanukam is performed facing East or North. Sayam Sandyavandanam is performed facing East upto ‘Arghya pradhanam’ and facing West thereafter. (Japam is done sitting). The guiding principle is to look in the direction of the Sun at the time of performing the ritual.

When To Perform Sandhyavandanam:

The Vedas prescribe prayers at sunrise and sunset. Sunrise constitues a change from darkness to light and hence a sandhya time (that is a time of junction). This is referred to as Pratha Sandhya. The Sun set constitutes a change from light to darkness and hence a sandhya time, this is referred to as Sayam Sandhya.

 To these two our sages have added a third known as Madhyanika or midday, constituting a change from an ascending sun to a descending sun in the sky. The addition of Madyanika has another significance, during this time we can offer our prayers seeing the sun.
The benefits of Pratah Sandyavandanam is best when performed before sunrise and stars are visible; average when performed before sunrise but stars have disappeared; poor after sunrise. Similarly for ‘Sayam Sandyavandanam’; it is best before sunset; average after sunset but before stars appear and poor after stars appear.
The above view has also been reflected in the hymns forming part of SandyavandanamSamaveda hymns for upastanam the rising sun is saluted (udyantan thvaditya anudiyasam) in Pratha Sandyavandanam, while setting sun is saluted (Pratithishtantam thvaditya anupratithistasam) in Sayam sandhyavandanam.
This pratah Sandyavandanam should be started before sunrise and concluded at sunrise. Similarly the sayam Sandyavandanam should be started before sunset and concluded at sunset (at local time)

Sandhyavandanam rules:

The tradition prescribes the Sandhya Vandana to be performed thrice a day namely, morning, evening & noon. The noon ritual is known as Maadhyanikha. Most of the people who are working or studying in schools/colleges will not be able to perform in the noon.
They may do only morning and evening. If for some reason, it is not possible to perform morning and evening, some do only once i.e. in the morning after taking bath. If even this is not possible, a person can perform the japa of Gayatri Mantra as much as possible.
The Gayatri Mantra is the core of the whole of Sandhya Vandana while other aspects relate to more of rituals. It would be more beneficial if one does it knowing its meaning.
The main purpose of Sandhya Vandana etc is to think of the Lord at least during some part of the day. It helps us to develop our concentration, will power and character.
Practice of Sandhyā in Ramayana and Mahabharata by Rama and Krishna can be observed. In Balakanda (23.2, 23.2) of Ramayana, Viswamitra wakes Rama and Lakshmana up at the break of the dawn for the worship of sandhya. In Udyogaparva (82.21) of Mahabharata there is reference to Krishna performing Sandhya.
Even during impure times like Sutaka (child birth), Sandhyopasana should be done, chanting mantras mentally. Gobila Smriti says that at times when Sandhyopasana has to be done with wet clothes on, Gayatri mantra alone should be chanted (while on the bank of river). If wet cloth is squeezed and blown 7 times, it is equal to dry cloth. It is best to chant Gayatri 1008 times; it is laid down that it should be chanted at least 108, 54, 28, 27 or 10 times.
In Sandhyopasana, Dhyanam (meditation) is important. In the morning Sandhya, one has to meditate that he is same as Sandhya Devata, who is Aditya Deva of red colour and named Gayatri. In the noon prayer, he mediates that he is same as Devata of white colour, of the form of Rudra and named Savitri. In the evening, he meditates that he is same as Sandhya Devata, who is Aditya Deva of black colour, of the form of Vishnu and named Saraswati.
Some say that four parts of Sandhyopasana, viz. offering Argya, meditating as mentioned above, chanting Gayatri and doing upasthanam, are important. In the Mahabharata war, Dharmaraja,etc all did meditation alone scrupulously, when they were unable to do Prokshanam (sprinkling),etc as water was not available.
From this it is clear that meditation (dhyanam) is very important. Further in view of the fact that Dharmaraja,etc did not leave Sandhyopasana completely even in times of danger to life and did dhyanam at least, it is certain that people, who are not in situations of emergency of that type, should perform all aspects of Sandhyopasana in proper time as per rules laid down.
It is good to meditate on Rishi, chandas, Devata and Viniyogam of different mantras; it is beneficial to meditate on the meaning of mantras too. It is very good
to understand and perform Bhutasuddhi, Pranaprathishtha, mudras etc. The greatness of Pranayama is immeasurable. It is important even for healthy life in this world.

How to do Sandhyavandanam Daily-Thrikala Sandhyavandanam :

Sandhyavandanam Mantra with Meaning -sandhyavandanam procedure:

Sandhya Vandhanam – Part-I – Argya Pradhanam

(yajurveda sandhyavandanam-samaveda-Rig veda)
Sandhya Vandhana has two parts, the first one normally to be done either standing in a river or sitting with hunched legs on the feet outside the house and the second part is done by sitting on firm ground using the lotus pose (Padmasana). It is normally done facing east during dawn and noon and facing west during dusk..

1. Perform Achamanam:

Take small quantities of water (just sufficient to soak one grain of black gram) three times in the right hand and take it with the following manthra:
Om Achyuthaya Namah, Om Ananthaya Namah, Om Govindaya Namah.
Then
Touch with thumb both cheeks saying Kesava – Narayana
Touch with ring finger both eyes saying Madhava – Govinda
Touch with the first finger both sides of nose saying Vishno – Madhusoodana
Touch with little finger both ears saying Trivikrama – Vamana
Touch with the middle finger both shoulders saying Sreedhara – Hrishikesa
Touch with all fingers the belly button saying Padmanabha
Touch with all fingers the head saying Damodara

2. Ganapathi Dhyanam*:

Recite the following manthra slowly hitting the forehead with both fists together:
Shuklambaradharam Vishnum Sasi Varnam ChathurBhujam,
Prasanna Vadanam Dyayeth Sarva Vigna Upa Santhaye.
*This prayer is not recited by Vaishnavas. They are requested to go to the next section.

3. Do Pranayamam:

Hold both Nostrils with Thumb and the little and third finger of the hands and recite the following Manthra:
Om Bhoo
Om Bhuva
Ogum Suva
Om Maha
Om Jana
Om Thapa
Ogum Sathyam
Om Tat savithur varenyam Bargo devasya dhimahi dhiyo yona prachodayath
Om Apa
Jyothj rasa
Amrutham brahma
Bhoorbuvasuvarom
Touch the ears three times saying
Om, Om, Om.

4. Sankalpam:

Keep the right palm inside the left palm and keep the palms on the right thigh and recite the following manthra:
Mamo partha samastha duritha kshaya dwara, Sri Parameshwara preethyartham*,
pratha sandhyam upasishye (for madhyannikam instead tell “madhyaynikam karishye” and for evening sandhya vandhanam tell “sayam sandhyam upasishye”)
*Vaishnavas may instead tell “shri bhagavadaagnaayaa shriimannaaraayana priityartham”.

5. Marjanam:

Sri Kesavaya Namah (write OM in water with the ring finger)
Recite the following ten manthras. While reciting the first seven sprinkle water on the head, while reciting the eighth touch the feet, nine again sprinkle on the head and complete by reciting the tenth with Take little water on your right palm and throw around your head in clockwise direction like
Pradakshinam:
Aapo hishta mayo bhuva (1) thana oorje dadha thana (2) Mahe ranaaya chakshase (3) Yova shiva thamo rasa (4) Thasya bhajaya thehana (5) usatheeriva mathara (6) Thasma aranga mamava (7)
Yasya kshayaya jinwadha (8) Aapo janayadha jana (9) Om bhorbuvassuva (10)

6. Praasanam:

Take in the hand small quantity of water in the palm (just sufficient to immerse one grain) recites the following manthra and drink it while telling “swaha”.
Morning (Pratha Sandhya):
For Rig Vedis and Yajur vedis:
Sooryascha ma manyuscha manyu patayascha manyukruthebhya.
Paapebhyo rakshantham
Yad rathrya papa ma karsham
Manasa vacha hasthabhyam padbhyam udarena sisnaa
Rathri sthadha valumbathu
Yad kincha duritham mayi
Idham aham mam amrutha yonau
Soorya jyothishi juhomi swaha
For Sama Vedis:
Ahascha maa adithyascha punathu swaha
Noon (Madhyahnika):
Aapa punanthu prithweem, prithwee pootha punathu maam
Punanthu brahmanaspathir brahma pootha punathu maam
Yad uchishta mabhojyam yadhwa ducharitham mama
Sarvam punanthu mamopa asatham cha prathigraham swaha
Evening (Sayam Sandhya):
For Yajur and Rik Vedis:
Agnischa ma manyuscha manyu pathayascha manyu kruthebhya
Papebhyo rakshantham
Yadahna papama karsham
Manasa vaacha hasthabhyam
Padbhyam udarena sisna
Ahasthada valumbathu
Yad kinchid duritham mayi
Idamaham maam amrutha yonau
Sathye jyothishi juhomi swaha
For Sama Vedis:
Rathrischa ma varunascha punathu swaha.
7. Achamanam:
Use the same manthras and action as given in “1” above

8. Punar Marjanam:

Recite the following fourteen manthras. While reciting the first eleven-sprinkle water on the head, while reciting the twelfth touch the feet, thirteen again sprinkle on the head and complete by reciting the fourteenth with Take little water on your right palm and throw around your head in clockwise direction like pradakshinam:
Dadhi kravinno akarisham (1) Jishno raswasya vajina (2) surabhino mukha karaath (3) Prana ayugumshi tharishath (4) Aapo hishta mayo bhuva (5) Thana oorje dadha Thana (6) Mahe ranaaya chakshase (7) Yova shiva thamo rasa (8) Thasya bhajaya thehana (9) usatheeriva mathara (10) Thasma aranga mamava (11) Yasya kshayaya jinwadha (12) Aapo janayadha jana (13) Om bhorbuvassuva (14)
Some Rik vedis after doing this punar marjanam recite the following manthra with little water in hand, smell the water and pour it in southwesterly direction.
Ruthancha sathyancha thapasodyadha thadho rathri jayatha thada samudhro arnavaa
Samudhradarnavaa dadhi samvadvaro ajayatha.
Aho rathraani vidhathat viswasya mishadho vasi.
Soorya chandrama sow dhatha yadha poorva magalpayath.
Divancha prithweem santharishmatho Suva.

9. Argya Pradhanam:

Join both hands together and take hand full of water taking care not to join both thumbs with other fingers (facing east during Pratha Sandhya, facing north during Madyannikam, and facing west during Sayam Sandhya) repeat the following manthra and pour it, thrice during pratha sandhya, twice during Madhyannikam and twice during Sayam sandhya:
Om Bhorbuvassuva. Tatsa vithur varenyam bhargo devasya deemahi. Dhiyo yona prachodayath
Rik vedis in all the three times offer three argyas always standing.

10. Prayaschitha Argyam:

Do Pranayama (refer S. No. 3 above)
Then offer one more Argyam in a similar fashion as above. This is a Prayaschitha (atonement) for doing the argya pradhanam late. Take small quantity of water in the right hand and rotate it above ones own head saying (this is called Athma parishechanam)
Om Bhorbuvassuva
Rik and Sama Vedis use a different manthra for this prayachithargyam:
Morning (Pratha Sandhya):
Om yadathya gacha vruthrahan. Udayaa abhisoorya sarvaan dathindra they vache.
Noon (Madyannikam):
Om uthkedthbhi sruthamagam vrushabham naryabasim
Astharameshi soorya
Evening (Sayam Sandhya):
Om na thasya maya yachana
Ripureeseetha marthya yo agnaye dathacha havyadathaye (Rik vedis end it as havyadathibhi)
11. Ikyaanusandhanam:
With both hands touch the middle of the chest, close the eyes, meditate and chant
Asaavadhityo brahma. Brahamaivahamasmi
Then do Achamanam.
12. Deva Tharpanam:
Sit facing east during pratha sandhya, facing north during madhyannikam, and facing east during sayam sandhya, take water in the hand and pour it out through its tips after each manthra. Take care to take water separately each time.
Aadithyam tharpayami
Somam tharpayami
Angarakam tharpayami
Budham tharpayami
Brahaspathim tharpayami
Shukram tharpayami
Sanaiswaram tharpayami
Rahum tharpayami
Kethum tharpayami
Kesavam tharpayami
Narayanam tharpayami
Madhavam tharpayami
Govindam tharpayami
Vishnum tharpayami
Madhusoodhanam tharpayami
Trivikramam tharpayami
Vamanam tharpayami
Sreedharam tharpayami
Hrishikesam tharpayami
Padmanabham tharpayami
Damodharam tharpayami
Then do aachamanam
Thus ends the first part of Sandhya Vandana.

Sandhyavandhanam – Part-II – Japam

This is done sitting cross-legged or in the Padmasana pose, sitting on a mat or wooden Palagai placed on the floor either on the shores of the river or inside the house. This is done facing east during pratha sandhya, facing north during madyannikam and facing west during sayam sandhya.

1. Japa Sankalpam:

Recite the following manthra slowly hitting the forehead with both fists together:
Shuklambaradharam Vishunum Sasi Varnam ChathurBhujam,
Prasanna Vadanam Dyayeth Sarva Vigna Upa Santhaye.
*This prayer is not recited by Vaishnavas.They are requested to go to the next section.
Do Pranayamam.
Hold both Nostrils with Thumb and the little and third finger of the hands and recite the following Manthra:
Om Bhoo
Om Bhuva
Ogum Suva
Om Maha
Om Jana
Om Thapa
Ogum Sathyam
Om Tat savithur varenyam Bargo devasya dhimahi dhiyo yona prachodayath
Om Apa
Jyothj rasa
Amrutham brahma
Bhoorbuvasuvarom
Touch the ears three times saying
Om, Om, Om
Keep the right palm inside the left palm and keep the palms on the right thigh and recite the following manthra:
Mamo partha samastha duritha kshaya dwara, Sri Parameshwara preethyartham*,
pratha sandhya gayathri maha manthra japam karishye (for madhyannikam instead tell “madhyaynika gayathri maha manthra japam karishye” and for evening sandhya vandhanam tell “sayam sandhya gayathri maha manthra japam karishye”)
*Vaishnavas may instead tell “shri bhagavadaagyayaa shriimannaaraayana priityartham”

2. Pranava Japam:

Pranavasya Rishi Brahma (touch the forehead with fingers), Devi gayathri Chanda (touch below the nose), Paramathma devatha (touch the middle of the chest)
Bhooradhi saptha vyahrudeenam athri – brugu – kuthsa – vasishta – gowthama – kasyapa – aangeerasa rishaya (touch forhead)
Gayathree – ushnig – anushtup – brahathi – pankthi- trushtup- jagathi – chandamsi (touch below the nose)
Agni – vayu – arka – vageesa – varuna – indra – viswe deva – devatha (touch the middle of the chest.)
Do pranayama as given below ten times:
Hold both Nostrils with Thumb and the little and third finger of the hands and recite the following Manthra:
Om Bhoo
Om Bhuva
Ogum Suva
Om Maha
Om Jana
Om Thapa
Ogum Sathyam
Om Tat savithur varenyam Bargo devasya dhimahi dhiyo yona prachodayath
Om Apa
Jyothj rasa
Amrutham brahma
Bhoorbuvasuvarom
Touch the ears three times saying
Om, Om, Om

3. Gayathri Avahanam:

Aayadithya anuvagasya vamadeva rishi (touch head), Anushtup chanda (touch below nose), Gayathri devatha (touch the middle of the chest)
Aayathu varada devi aksharam brahma samhitham.
Gayathri chandasam mathedam brahma jushaswana.
Oojosi, sahosi, balamasi, brajosi, devaanaam dhama naamaasi. viswamasi,
viswayu sarvamasi, sarvayu abhipoorom, Gayathrim avahayami, Savithrim avahayami, saraswathim avahayami (while reciting the last three manthras, after avahayami, keep both the palms together with little fingers touching and then slowly take the fingers towards oneself, and bring it back to original position after one rotation)

For Rik Vedis:

Om ithyekaksharam brahma. Agnir devatha brahma. Ithyarsham
Gayathram chandam paramathmam swaroopam Sayjyam viniyogam
Aayathu varada devi akshatram brahma samhitham.
Gayathri chandasam mathedam brahma jushaswana.
Oojosi, sahosi, balamasi, brajosi, devaanaam dhama naamaasi. viswamasi,
viswayu sarvamasi, sarvayu abhipoorom, Gayathrim avahayami, Savithrim avahayami
saraswathim avahayami, chanda rishinaam avahayami, Sriyam avahayami, Gayathrya gayathrischando viswamithra rishi (touch forehead), savitha devatha (touch below nose), Agnir mugam brahma, siro Vishnu, hrudaya Rudra, shikaa pruthvi, yoni prana apana vyano dana samano sapranaa, Swetha varna, sankhyayana sagothra, gayathri cha dur visathyakshara tripada shadrushi pancha seershopanayane viniyoga.

4. Gayathri Nyasam:

Savithrya rishi brahma (touch the forehead), nichrud gayathri chanda (touch below the nose), savitha devatha (touch the middle of the chest)

5. Gayathri Japam:

Repeat 108 times the Gayathri facing east in the morning, west in the evening:
Om Bhur Vhuvah Svah
Tat Savitur Varenyam
Bhargo Devasya Dheemahi
Dhiyo Yo Nah Prachodayat
(take care that the manthra is not heard to any one and if possible without the lips moving. The counting is done by using japa mala or counting 10 with using the thumb the ten phalanges except the bottom two of the ring finger. Some people insist that the counting should not be known to others and cover the counting hand with towel.)
Some people repeat Gayathri manthra only 54 times during madhayannikam.

6. Gayathri Upasthanam:

Do pranayamam and then stand up and chant
Facing the same direction:
Pratha sandhyam upasthanam karishye (during pratha sandhya)
Adithyam upasthanam karishye (during madyannikam)
Sayam sandhyaupasthanam karishye (during sayam sandhya)
Then repeat:
Uthame shikare devi, bhoomyam parvatha vardhini,
Brahmanebhyo anugnanam, gacha devi yada sukham.

7. Surya Upasthanam:

During morning (Pratha Sandhya)

For Yajur Vedis:

Mithrasya charshanee drutha sravo devasya saanaseem,
Sathyam chithra sravasthamam
Mithro janan yathayathi prajanan mithro dhadhara prithveem udadhyam.
Mithra krushti ranimisha bichashte sathyaya havyam krudavath vidhema
Prasa mithra martho aasthu prayaswan yastha adithya sikshathi vrathena
Na hanyathe na jeeyathe thwotho naina manho asnoth yanthitho na doorath

For Rik Vedis:

Mithrasya charshani drutho aavo devasya sanaasi
DyumNamah chitra sravasthamam
Mithro janan yathayathi bruvaano mithro dathaara prithveem udathyam
Mithra srushtir nimishaa abhishte mithraaya havyam gruthava jjuhodha
Prasamithra martho asthu prayaswaan yastha adhithya sikshathi vruthena
Na hanyathe, na jeeyathe dwotho sanNamah aho asnodhyanthitho na doorath
Jatha vedase sunavaama soma marathi yadho nitha hadhi veda
Sa na parshathathi durgaani viswaa naaveva sindhum durithath yagni
Pisanga brushti mam brunam pisasi mindra sam mruna
Sarvam raksho nibarhaya (rotate hand over face)
Badhram karnobhi srunyama deva
Badhram pasye makmaa akshabir yajathraa
Sthirai rangaisdushtuvaangsathaubhi
Vyasema deva hitham yadayu (touch ears)
Kesya agnim kesee visham kesi pibarthi rodani
Kesi viswam swarduche keseetham jyothi ruchyathe (touch hair)

For Sama Vedis:

Yaso aham bhavami brahmananaam yaso ragnam yaso visaam
Yasa sathyasya bhavami
Bhavami yasasaam yasa
Adithya naava maroksham poornamparipadinim
Achithram bharayishnaveem satharithraam swasthye om Namah adithyaya
Udyantham dwa aadithyanu deeyasam

During Noon (Madyaneekam):

For Yajur Vedis:

Aasathyena rajasa varthamano nivesayan amrutham marthyancha
Hiranyena savitha rathena aaadevo yathi bhuvana vipasyam
Udvayam thamasaparee pasyantho jyothirutharam
Devam devathra soorya maganma jyothiruthamam
Uduthyam jatha vedasam devam vahanthi kethava
Druse viswaya soorya
Chithram devaana mudagaa daneekam chakshu mithrasya varunasyagne
Aa praa dyaava pruthvi aanthareeksha soorya aathma jagathasthushacha
Tachakshur deva hitham purasthath chakra mucharath

For Rik Vedis:

Aakrushno na rajasa varthamano nivesayan amrutham marthyancha
Hiranyayena savitha ratheno devo yadhi bhuvanani pasyan
Thachakshur devahitham purasthaschakra mucharath
Pasyema sarada satham
Jeevema sarada satham
Hamsa suchishath vasur anathreeksha sath hotha vedishadathir drona sath
Nrushatvarasath ruthasath vyomaasa thabja koja ruthaja adrija rutham bruhath
Uduthyam jatha vedasam devam vahanthi kethava
Druse viswaya sooryam
Apathye dayavo yada nakshatrayandyakthubhi
Sooraaya viswa chakshase
Chithran devanam udagadaneekam chakshur mithrasya varunasyagne
Aapradyava pruthvee anthareeksha soorya athma jagatha sthas dushacha
That sooryasya devathvam than mahithwam
Madhya karthor vidhatham sancha bhara
Yadeda yuktha haridas sadasthath
Aadrathri vasa sthanu they simasmai
Than mithrasya varunasya abhi chakshe
Sooryo roopam grunuthe dyo roopasthe

For Sama Vedis:

Aadhithya navamaroksham poorna maparipaddhineem
Acchithram bharayishnaveem sadarithraam swasthaye
Om Namah adithyaya, Namah adhithyaya, Namah adhithyaya
Uduthyam jatha vedasam devam vahanthi kethava
Druse viswaya sooryam
Chithram devaanam udaganeekam chakshur mithrasya varunasyagne
Aa pra dyava pruthvi anthareeksha soorya athma jagadas tha dushacha
Thachkshur deva hitham purasthac chukramussarth
Om bhorbuvaswarom
Soorya iva druse bhooyasam agneeriva thejasa, vayuriva pranena, soma iva ganthena, brahaspathher iva budhya, aswina iva roopena, indragni iva balena, brahma bhaga evaham bhooyasam paap mabhaga me dwishantha.

During Evening (Sayam Sandhya)

For Yajur Vedis:

Imam me varuna sruthi hava Madhya cha mrudaya
Thvaam mavsyu rachake
Tathwayami brahmana vandamanas thadhasaasthe yajamano havirbhi
Ahedamano varuneha bhodyurusa sa maa na aayu pramoshi
Yacchidithe visho yadha pradheva varuna vratham
Minimasi dyavi dyavi
Yat kinchedam varuna daivye jane abhidroham manushyascharamasi
Achithee yath thava dharma yoyopima maa nasthasma thenaso deva reerisha
Kitha vaso yad riripur na dheevi yad vagha Sathya muthayanna vidhma
Sarvaa thaa vishya sithireva devathaa the syama varuna priyasa

For Rik Vedis:

Imam me varuna sruthi hava Madhya cha mrudaya
Thvaam mavsyu rachake
Tathwayami brahmana vandamanas thadhasaasthe yajamano havirbhi
Ahedamano varuneha bhodyurusa sa maa na aayu pramoshi
Yacchidithe visho yadha pradheva varuna vratham
Minimasi dyavi dyavi
Yat kinchedam varuna daivye jane abhidroham manushyascharamasi
Achithee yath thava dharma yoyopima maa nasthasma thenaso deva reerisha
Kitha vaso yad riripur na dheevi yad vagha Sathya muthayanna vidhma
Sarvaa thaa vishya sithireva devathaa the syama varuna priyasa
Jatha vedis sunavaama soma maarathi yadho nitha hadhi Veda
Sa na parshathathi durgaani viswaa naaveva sindhum durithath yagni
Pisanga brushti mam brunam pisasi mindra sam mruna
Sarvam raksho nibarhaya (rotate hand over face)
Badhram karnobhi srunyama deva
Badhram pasye makmaa akshabir yajathraa
Sthirai rangai sdushtuvaan sasathaubhi
Vyasema deva hitham yadayu (touch ears)
Kesya agnim kesee visham kesi pibarthi rodani
Kesi viswam swarduche keseetham jyothi ruchyathe (touch hair)

For Sama Vedis:

Yaso aham bhavami brahmananaam yaso ragnam yaso visaam
Yasa sathyasya bhavami
Bhavami yasasaam yasa
Adithya naava maroksham poornamparipadinim
Achithram bharayishnaveem satharithraam swasthye om Namah adithyaya, Namah adhithyaya, Namah adithyaya

Prathi thishtantham thavar adhithya anu prathi thishtassam.

8. Samashti Abhivadanam:

Starting from the direction facing which the japa was done after each manthra turn 90 degrees to the right. Say the next manthra and so on.
Sandhyayai Namah
Savithryai Namah
Gaythryai Namah
Saraswathyai Namah
Then chant with folded hands facing the same direction
Sarvebhyo devathabhyo namo Namah
Then chant facing the same direction
Kamo karshed manyura karshed namo Namah.
Then touch with both hands the ears slightly bow and chant
Abhivadaye (tell your rishis) (tell number) Risheya
(tell your pravara) pravaranvitha
(tell your Gothra) gothra
(tell your Suthra) suthra
(tell your Veda) adhyay
Sri (tell your name) sarmanam aham asmibho
After this touch your feet with both hands and do Namahskaram.

Some examples of Pravara Rishis:

Gothra pravara rishaya
Athreya Athreya Archanaanasa, syavaaswa traya risheya
Naidruva kasyapa Kasyapa, Avathsara, Naidruva traya risheya
Gargeya Aangeerasa, Chainya, Gargya traya risheya, Aangeerasa, Barhaspathya, Baradwaja, Chainya-Gargya pancharisheya
Koundinya Vasishta, Maithra varuna, Koundinya traya risheya
Koushika Vaiswamithra, Aagamarshana, Koushika traya risheya
Gowthama Aangirasa-aayasya-gowthama traya risheya
Baradwaja Aangeerasa, Barhaspathya, Bharadwaja traya risheya
Haritha Aangeerasa, Ambareeksha, Younaswa trayarsheya
Sounaka Garthsamadha Ekarsheya
Chandilya Kasyapa, Aavathsara, Naidruva, Reba, Saptha risheya
Raibha, Choundilya, Chandilya

9. Dig Devatha Vandhanam:

With folded hands offer salutations to the different directions facing that direction:
Pracyai dishe Namah (East)
Dakshinayai dishe Namah (South)
Pradeechai dishe Namah (West)
Udichyai dishe Namah (North)
Then again face the direction in which you were doing japa and continue
Oordwaya Namah (above)
Adharaya Namah (below)
Anthareekshaya Namah (straight)
Bhoomyai Namah (earth)
Brahmane Namah
Vishnave Namah
Mrutuyuve Namah

10. Yama Vandanam:

Yamaya Namah
Yamaya dharma rajaya, mrutyuve cha anthakaya cha
Vaivaswathaya kalaya sarva bhootha kshayaya cha
Oudhumbharaya dhagnaya neelaya parameshtine
Vrukodharaya chithraya chithra gupthaya vai Namah
Chithra gupthaya vai Namah om Namah ithi

11. Harihara Vandhanam:

Ruthagum sathyam para brahma purusham Krishna pingalam,
Oordhwrethwam viroopaksham Viswa roopaya vai Namah
Viswa roopaya vai Namah om Namah ithi

12. Soorya Narayana Vandhanam:

Namah savithre jagadeka chakshushe,
Jagat prasoothi sthithi naasa hethave,
Trayin mayaya trigunathma dharine
Virinchi Narayana sankara athmane
Dyeya sada savithru mandala Madhya varthi
Narayana sarasijasana sannivishta
Keyuravan makara kundalavaan
Kiriti haari hiranya vapur drutha sankha chakra
Sanka chakra gatha pane dwaraka nilayachythe
Govinda pundarikaksha raksha maam sarana gatham
Aakasath pathitham thoyam,
Yada gachathi sagaram,
Sarva deva Namahskara
Sri kesavam prathi gachathi,
Sri kesavam prathi gachathi om na ithi
Some families face the North after this and chant the following Sarpa Raksha Manthram:
Narmadayayi Namah-Prathar narmadayai namo nisi
Namosthu narmadhe thubhyam trahi maam visha sarpatha
Apa sarpa sarpa bhadram the Dooram gacha maha yasa
Janamejayasya yagnanthe aasthika vachanam smaran
Jarath karer Jarath karvam samuthpanno maha yasa
Aasthika Sathya santho maam pannagebhyo abhi rakshathu.
Then do sashtanga pranamahm after reciting Abhivadaye as explained above.
Vaishnavites recite the following manthra before Abhivadaye in addition:
Namobrahmanya devaya Go brahmana hithaya cha,
Jagathidaya krishnaya Govindaya namo Namah
Sree ranga mangala nidhim karuna nivasam Sree Venkadadri Shikaralaya kala megam
Sree Hasthi saila Shikarojwala Parijatham Sreesam Namahmi sirasa yadu saila deepam.

13. Samarpanam:

Take a small quantity of water recite the following manthra and pour it on the ground
Kaye na vacha manase indriyair va
Budhyathma nava prakruthai swabhavat.
Karomi yadyat sakalam parasmai,
Narayana yethi samarpayami
Then do aachamanam

14. Raksha:

Sprinkle some water on the place where japa was [performed reciting the manthra below, then touch the ground with ring finger and place it between the eyelids:
Adhya no deva savitha praja vath saavee soubhagam
Para duswapneeya suva
Viswani deva savitha – durithani paraa suvaa
Yad bhadram thama asuva

Meaning of Sandhya Vandhanam:

Sandhya Vandhanam – Part-I – Argya Pradhanam Meaning:

1. Aachamanam:

This is a preliminary purification ceremony. Gods Achyutha, Anantha and Govinda are saluted and then chanting the twelve names of Vishnu purifies the self.

2. Ganapathi Dhyanam (this is not done by Vaishnavites):

This is a prayer to the God Ganapathi who is supposed to remove all obstacles on our way in performance of any rite, in this case, “Tharpanam”
Dressed in white thou art,
Oh, all pervading one,
And glowing with the colour of moon.
With four arms, thou art, Vishnu.
I meditate on thine ever-smiling face,
And pray, “Remove all obstacles on my way”.

3. Pranayamam (Holy Meditation):

This manthra is a guide to a breathing exercise as also a prayer. While chanting Om bhoo,Om Bhuva, Ogum Suva, Om Maha, om jana, om thapa, ogum satyam we are supposed to keep the left nostril closed and inhale through the right nostril. While chanting, “Om tat sa vithur varenyam bargo devasya dhee mahi, dhi yo yona prachothayad”, we are supposed to close both nostrils and hold the breath. After this the left nostril is opened and air exhaled till the end of the manthra. Hindus believed that that there were six holy worlds above the earth. These along with earth are remembered in the first part. These worlds are bhooloka, bhuvarloka, suvarloka, maharloka, janaloka, thapa loka and satya loka. The second part is the famous Gayathri manthram. It means “I meditate on that savitha (the sun or the enlightenment within ourselves) which helps us in our though process, that god which is within me and that all engulfing power.”
Or
“I meditate on the most holy shining aspect of that God, who helps in brightening our thought process.” Then the third part means “Om is water, it is the light, it is the earth which gives the food, it is the air which supports life, and it is the ether which is spread all around. It is also the holy seven worlds.” By touching the nose the hands are supposed to get polluted and this is removed by touching the ears thrice.

4. Sankalpam (our reason for the action):

This is a preliminary rite in every Vedic action. We tell why we are doing what we do.
We chant” To become dear to the Lord Parameshwara (in case of Vaishnavas it is Lord Vishnu) and to destroy all the effects of sins committed by me, I pray the Goddess of dawn (noon, dusk)”

5. Marjanam (Holy bath by sprinkling water):

Salutations to Lord Kesava. It is well known that you Gods of water are the source of greatness in life. Please grant us the ethereal vision. Like the holy and dear mothers, grant us please the ultimate essence of happiness that you have. We are praying you for that essence of happiness to posses, which you are personification of pleasure. You gods of water should through knowledge help us to be born holy in the next birth.

6. Prasanam (drinking water powered by Manthras):

Morning (Really at dawn):

Let the sun God, the anger that makes every one its slave and the powers of God, which control anger save me from the sins committed while being angry. Let the God of night remove the sins done by me using my mind, my voice, my hands, my legs, my belly and my penis and also any other sins that remain with me. I offer myself to the great light of sun, after the purifications of my sins as a result of this prayer. Let this offering be done well.

Noon:

Let the god of water purify the earth, which is its source, and let the earth thus purified purify me. Let it also purify my teacher who is the source of Vedas to me. Let Vedas, which are ever holy, purify me. Let the god of water purify me of my action in eating the remnants of food eaten by someone else, which are fit not to be eaten and also my bad habits, which are within me. Let it also purify me of my action in following the actions of bad people. I offer myself to thee God.

Evening (really dusk):

Let the God of fire, the anger that makes everyone its slave and the powers of God, which control anger save me from the sins committed while being angry. Let the God of day remove the sins done by me using my mind, my voice, my hands, my legs, my belly and my penis and also any other sins that remain with me. I offer myself to the great light, which gives Holy Communion with the ever shining, after the purifications of my sins as a result of this prayer. Let this offering be done well
7. Aachamanam (same as 1)

8. Punar Marjanam (repetition of the Holy bath by sprinkling water):

I salute that great God who holds the earth, who rules the world, who measures the world, who is victorious, and who has taken the form of Hayagreeva (a form of Human with horses head) who is the source of all knowledge and who is speed himself. Let him make my face and all other organs smell good. Let him manage my life without problems.
Salutations to Lord Kesava. It is well known that you Gods of water are the source of greatness in life. Please grant us the ethereal vision. Like the holy and dear mothers, grant us please the ultimate essence of happiness that you have. We are praying you for that essence of happiness to posses, which you are personification of pleasure. You gods of water should through knowledge help us to be born holy in the next birth.

9. Argya Pradhanam (Offering of water):

The God who is OM, I meditate on that glittering form of God who sharpens the intellect of those in the world of earth, the ether world of Bhuvar and the heaven Suvar and who has created all of us.
10. Prayaschitha Argyam (same as 9 for offered for the delay)
11. Ikkyanusandhanam (meditating on the oneness of truth)
This Sun god, this Brahmam and myself are one and the same.

12. Deva Tharpanam (satisfying the devas):

I satisfy the sun, moon, mars, mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Rahu and Kethu, I satisfy Lord Kesava, Narayana, Madhava, Govinda, Vishnu, Madhusoodhana, Trivikrama, Vamana, Sreedhara, Hrishikesa, Padmanabha and Damodhara, which are the different forms of Lord Vishnu. Ruling over the twelve different months.

Sandhyavandhanam – Part-II – Japam Meaning: 

1. Japa Sankalpam:

Dressed in white thou art,
Oh, all pervading one,
And glowing with the colour of moon.
With four arms, thou art, Vishnu.
I meditate on thine ever-smiling face,
And pray, “Remove all obstacles on my way”.

Pranayamam:

This manthra is a guide to a breathing exercise as also a prayer. While chanting Om bhoo,Om Bhuva, Ogum Suva, Om Maha, om jana, om thapa, ogum satyam we are supposed to keep the left nostril closed and inhale through the right nostril. While chanting, “Om tat sa vithur varenyam bargo devasya dhee mahi, dhi yo yona prachothayad”, we are supposed to close both nostrils and hold the breath. After this the left nostril is opened and air exhaled till the end of the manthra.
Hindus believed that that there were six holy worlds above the earth. These along with earth are remembered in the first part. These worlds are bhooloka, bhuvarloka, suvarloka, maharloka, janaloka, thapaloka and satya loka. The second part is the famous Gayathri manthram. It means “I meditate on that savitha (the sun or the enlightenment within ourselves) which helps us in our though process, that god which is within me and that all engulfing power.”
Or
“I meditate on the most holy shining aspect of that God, who helps in brightening our thought process.” Then the third part means “Om is water, it is the light, it is the earth which gives the food, it is the air which supports life, and it is the ether which is spread all around. It is also the holy seven worlds.” By touching the nose the hands are supposed to get polluted and this is removed by touching the ears thrice.

Sankalpam:

This is a preliminary rite in every Vedic action. We tell why we are doing what we do.
We chant To become dear to the Lord Parameshwara (in case of Vaishnavas it is Lord Vishnu) and to destroy all the effects of sins committed by me, I do meditation on Gayathri in the morning (noon, evening)

2. Pranava Japam (Pranayamam as preliminary to meditation):

For “Om”, the sage is Lord Brahma himself, the meter is Gayathri, and the ultimate Brhman is its God.For the seven worlds, the rishis are Athri, Brugu, Kutsa, Vasishta, Gowthama, Kasyapa, Angeerasa and the corresponding meters are Gayathri, Ushnik, Anushtup, Bruhathi, Pankthi, Trushtup and Jagathi are the respective meters and Fire God, Wind God,, Sun God, God of words, God of Rain, God of Devas and God of the universe are Gods respectively.
This is followed by Pranayamam whose meaning is given under sankalpam.

3. Gayathri Avahanam (Requesting Goddess Gayhtri to come within us):

For this Manthra starting with the word “Ayanthu”, the sage is Vama Deva, meter is Anushtup and Goddess is Gayathri. The goddess Gayathri who can give all desired boons, who is ever permanent, who is known by Vedas and who is the mother of all meters should come in me.
Let this prayer be granted. Hey mother Gayathri, you are the power of soul supporting air, you are the power of all organs, You have power to win over all enemies, You are the resplendent light, You are the brightness of all Gods, You are the universe, You are time – the soul of the universe, You are soul of everything, You are victorious overall and So I pray you who are the meaning of the word “Om”. I request Gayathri to come within me, I request Savithri to come inside me, and I request Saraswathi to come inside me.

4. Gayathri Nyasam (Preliminary to Gayathri Japa):

For The Savithri Manthra, the sage is Viswamithra, meter is Nichruth-Gayathri and the God is Savitha

5. Gayathri Japa (Chanting of Gayathri):

We meditate on that resplendent form of God, who is the meaning of the word “OM”, who sharpens our intellect, and who is the creator.

6. Gayathri Upasthanam (Requesting Gayathri to go back):

I am requesting the Goddess of Morning ( evening) to go back to her place
In the noon, I am requesting the Sun God to go to his place.
After blessing us who pray you, please be kind enough to bless us and go and occupy your place, which is in the holy peak, and be ever happy.
7. Soorya Upasthanam (asking the Sun God to go back):

Morning:

I meditate on the greatness and fame of the Sun God who protects people, who is to be sung upon, who is forever and greatest among those who steal the mind. He knows everything and guides people. He carries the earth and the heaven. He sees the world without blinking his eye at any time and forever. To get results, which are forever, I offer him this offering made of ghee.
Oh Sun God who is Mithra. Let whosoever wants to worship you become fully capable of holy deeds. He who is protected by you never becomes sick and sins will not trouble hi, from far and near.

Noon:

The sun God who is resplendent in his light of the soul and who travels with his visible light which makes the people of earth and heaven do their allotted duties, travels in his golden chariot inspecting all the worlds, We who see the sun God, who rises daily after swallowing darkness and who with his light protects the devas attain the glittering shine of the soul.His horses, which are his rays, carry the Sun God who is well known in the Vedas and who knows everything and travel round the sky so that we the people of earth can all see him.The sun God who is like an eye to Mithra, Varuna and Agni and who is personification of all devas travels very high in the sky.
The Sun god who is the soul of those who are mobile and also to those who are immobile spreads through out the heaven, earth and the atmosphere. Rising in the east and doing good to all the gods the sun is like an eye. We will see him for hundred springs, WE would live for hundred springs, We would enjoy life with all those who are dear for hundred springs, We would live with fame for hundred springs, We would hear sweet words for hundred springs, We would live without being won by bad deeds for hundred springs, Like this we wish to see our dear Sun God for a long long time.
Let the Sun God who gives us all boons, who has reddish eyes, who knows everything, who shines in all directions and who rises from the middle of the vast ocean in the dawn make me holy with all his mind.

Evening:

Oh god Varuna, please hear now this prayer. Make me happy just now for I pray you beseeching for protection. I pray you using manthras of Vedas for that purpose and fall at your feet. One who does fire sacrifice with offerings to the fire is also requesting for the same thing. Of Famous God Varuna, without neglect be pleased to hear my prayer. Please never reduce my life span.
Oh God Varuna, we might have neglected to worship you daily due to carelessness. Without knowing we men might have deceived the devas in worship, we might have spoiled your good deeds. Oh God Varuna, please do not punish us for these sins.
We might have been defamed without basis by bad people like gamblers. We might have done sins fully knowing it. WE might have done sins without knowing it. Please destroy in to small pieces; all these without pain, Please keep me as one who is very dear to you.

8. Samashti Abhivadanam (Prayer to all):

Salutations to the goddess of dawn and dusk.
Salutations to Goddess Savithri
Salutations to goddess gayathri
Salutations to Goddess Saraswathi
Salutations and salutations to all Gods
The crimes of passion and anger done by me were not done with full realization. I beseech you again and again to pardon all those sins, which were done unknowingly by me.
Oh great one, I am follower of the pravara rishis called ——————– belonging to ——————– Gothra (clan), following the ——————– Suthra and a student of ——————– Veda and my name is ——————– Sarma and I am following at thine feet.

9. Dig Devatha Vandanam (Salutations to the Gods of Directions):

Salutation to the east
Salutation to the South
Salutations to the west
Salutations to the north
Salutations to those Gods above
Salutations to the Gods below
Salutations to the Atmosphere
Salutations to the earth
Salutations to the Brahma
Salutations to Vishnu
Salutations to God of death

10. Yama Vandanam (Salutations to God of Death):

Salutations to Yama, the God of death
My salutations and salutations
To Him who can keep in control his senses,
To Him who is the king of justice.
To him who destroys,
To him who can put to an end,
To Him who is the son of Sun God,
To him who represents march of time,
To him who causes death to all beings,
To him who is supremely strong,
To him who is called the universal giver,
To him who has a bluish body,
To him who is being worshipped by all,
To him who has a huge belly,
To him who is really peculiar,
And to him who guards his secret.
Guards his secret continued.

11. Hari Hara Vandanam:

I salute Him
Who is the beauty in all things I see,
Who is the truth in what I tell,
Who is the ultimate Brahmam,
Who is the soul of every being,
Who is the amalgam of black (Vishnu) and Red (Shiva),
Who sees up from energy,
Who is the three eyed God,
And who is personification of the universe.
Salutation to personification of the universe continued

12. Soorya Narayana Vandanam:

My salutations to Lord Surya Narayana who is like an eye to the universe, Who is the cause of birth, upkeep and destruction of the worlds, Who is personification of Vedas and Who by his three qualities takes the form of the holy trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, Lord Narayana is forever most suitable to be venerated for he is in the middle of the solar system, For he sits in the lotus pose, For he wears the crown on the head, chain on his neck, wears anklets in his Arms and wears global studs in his ears, For he holds the Conch and the wheel in his hands and has the glittering colour of gold. Oh Lord who holds the conch and wheel in his hand, who forever lives in Dwaraka, Who never allows his devotees to fall, Who takes care f all beings of the earth and Who has lotus like eyes, please protect me who has come and fallen at your feet. Like all the water that falls from the sky reaches the sea, all salutations done to all gods reach Lord Narayana.
Oh great one, I am follower of the pravara rishis called ——————– belonging to ——————– Gothra (clan), following the ——————– Suthra and a student of ——————– Veda and my name is ——————– Sarma and I am following at thine feet.

13. Samarpanam (Giving away):

I give away To the Lord Narayana, all the actions done by me either by my body, or by my words, or by my mind, or by my organs, or my mind or by my intellect or by my soul or by my superior thought process or by my natural movements. Then do the purificatory ceremony of Achamanam (see section 1)

14. Raksha (Protective shield):

Hey Lord Savitha (Sun), please rant good luck to me and my family. Please remove the ill effects of bad dreams. Please remove the punishment for all the sins committed by me. And please grant me what is great and good.